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Current Issues in the Persian Gulf - Essay Example In addition, it has restricted outside access, built an airstrip and increased military presence on the island. Challenges that make gulf to be a troubled region is not a recent development, neither is it news for the Washingtoni. The vast oil reserves in the region make the balance of power in the gulf a concern for US policy makers. The US has been constantly involved in the gulf region, and this is consistent with the western security policy. Since the end of World War 2, US has ensured that gulf region gains stability and access to oil preservation increasesii. Washington policies in the gulf are not for US to gain access to water, but indeed ensure that there is stability of the oil market in the region. This is because oil shocks might negatively affect oil prices in the US. Geopolitics and energy security are not only the factors that engage US in the Gulf region. The American quest for ensuring stability in energy prices has been influenced by ideological considerations on the nature of US power. During the cold war, US strategy was to fight communism that was advocated by the Soviet Union. The collapse of communism in the gulf and end of soviet threat made the US reassess their strategies. The major concern of the US and other international communities in the Gulf is to ensure there is stability and security. This will reduce risk in energy markets around the world and encourage investors to invest in this regioniii. US and Iran relation is a step in the right direction as there will be international supervision of nuclear program, and in turn sanction in Iran will be uplifted. This will increase the living standards in the region and ensure there is stability in the region. This relation is an import step where dialogue is used instead of deploying troops in the region. Deploying troops in the Gulf region will certainly increase risk than reduces these risks. Iran
The Shawshank Redemption by Stephen King is both a wonderful film and a brilliantly written short story. There are many themes represented in each form of The Shawshank Redemption. The one major theme that interests me in both the film and the story is freedom. Freedom serves a large purpose for both the story's writer and the filmmaker. Both use similar examples to signify freedom, not only in the jail, but also in a larger context about life. There are many events and examples in both the film and the short story that signifies the theme of freedom. The one main difference is when the film uses the directorâ€™s technique to portray a feel of freedom for the inmates. The overall three issues used in this essay are all linked to the feeling of the inmates feeling the sense of freedom with the prison walls. In both the film and the short story, which involves freedom is when Andy Dufresne approaches the narrator, Red. Andy asks Red, "I wonder if you could get me a rock-hammer."(28) Andy's reason for wanting a rock-hammer is because he was "a rockhound. At least... I was a rockhound. In my old life."(29) Andy states that he would like to be a rockhound again on a limited basis because it gives him the feeling of freedom. This example serves the purposes of both the story's writer and the filmmaker. The act of Andy Dufresne being able to go on "Sunday expeditions"(29) at Shawshank shows the reader and/or viewer that it will make him feel free, like when he collected ...
Information Systems, Not Computer Science
The largest growth in most economies is coming from information industries. The success of such knowledge-based organisations lies in their information systems. Also, forced by technological change and globalisation of markets, many manufacturing industries are also placing increasing emphasis upon information systems. Information systems are more than just computer programs. Though information and communications technologies are playing an increasing role in meeting organisations information needs, an information system is a much more general concept. It refers to the wider systems of people, data and activities, both computer-based and manual, that effectively gather, process, store and disseminate organisations information
2.0 Information Systems not Computer Science
Information systems, as a discipline, focuses on exploring the interface between management, information science and computer science. Computer Science focuses on information technology: software. Information Systems mediates the two opposing worlds of human activity systems and information technology
3.0 Information Systems and the Modern Organization
Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems
Evolution of Information Systems
Classification of Information Systems
The Modern Computing Environment
Managing Information Resources
3.2 Learning Objectives
Describe Porters competitive forces model.
Discuss strategies that companies can use to achieve competitive advantage in their industries.
Describe strategic information system (SISs) and how information technology helps companies improve their competitive positions.
Describe various information systems and their evolution.
Learn major Information System classification schemes.
Describe the emerging computing environments.
Describe how information resources are managed and the roles of the information systems department and the end users
4.0 Competitive advantage and SIS
Competitive Advantage: An advantage over competitors in some measure such as cost, quality, or speed, which leads to control of a market and to larger than average profits.
4.1 Competitive forces model
A business framework, devised by Michael Porter, for analyzing competitiveness by looking at five major forces that might alter a firms competitive standing.
4.2 Porters five forces Model
4.3 Strategies for Competitive Advantage
Cost Leadership. Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost in the industry.
Differentiation. Offer different products, services or product features.
Customer orientation. Concentrate on making customers happy so that they remain loyal.
New markets. Discover new markets either as a means of expansion and growth, or with the goal of capturing market niches.
Innovation. Introduce new products and services, add new features to existing products and services or develop new ways to produce them.
Operational Effectiveness. Improve the manner in which internal business processes are executed so that a firm performs similar activities better than its rivals.
Discussion: Which of these strategies can be enhanced by the use of IS/IT, and how?
4.4 Strategic Information Systems (SISs)
Systems that help an organization gain a competitive advantage through their contribution to the strategic goals of an organization and / or their ability to significantly increase performance and productivity.
4.5 IS Related Organizational Responses
Strategic Systems may provide advantages that enable organizations to increase market share and/or profits, to better negotiate with suppliers, or prevent competitors from entering their markets.
Customer Focus is the idea of attracting and keeping customers by providing superb customer service.
Can be enhanced by use of IS/IT.
Made-to-Order. is a strategy of producing customized products and services.
Mass Customization is producing a large quantity of items, but customizing them to fit the desire of each customer.
E business and Ecommerce. Is the strategy of doing business electronically.
Discussion: Which Information Systems would be strategic for:
An online book store
A car manufacturer?
5.0 Evolution of Information Systems
The first business application of computers (in the mid1950s) performed repetitive, high volume, transaction computing tasks.
The computers crunched numbers summarizing and organizing transactions and data in the accounting, finance, and human resources areas. Such systems are generally called transaction processing systems (TPSs).
Management Information Systems (MISs): these systems access, organize, summarize and display information for supporting routine decision making in the functional areas.
Office Automation Systems (OASs): such as word processing systems were developed to support office and clerical workers.
Decision Support Systems: were developed to provide computer based support for complex, or no routine decision making.
End-user computing: The use or development of information systems by the principal users of the systems outputs, such as analysts, managers, and other professionals.
Knowledge Management Systems: support creating, gathering, organizing, integrating and disseminating of an organization knowledge.
Data Warehousing: A data warehouse is a database designed to support DSS, ESS and other analytical and end-user activities.
Intelligent Support System (ISSs): Include expert systems which provide the stored knowledge of experts to non experts, and a new type of intelligent systems with machine learning capabilities that can learn from historical cases.
Mobile Computing: Information systems that support employees who are working with customers or business partners outside the physical boundaries of their companies; can be done over wire line or wireless networks.
6.0 Classification of Information Systems
The two most common classifications are:
Classification by breath of support
Classification by organizational level.
6.1 Classification by Breath of Support
Typical information systems that follow the hierarchical organization structure are functional (departmental), enterprisewide and interorganizational
Functional information systems are organized around the traditional departments.
Enterprise information systems serve several departments or the entire enterprise.
Inter organizational systems connect two or more organizations.
An organizations supply chain describe the flow of materials, information, money, and service from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers.
IT provides two major types of software solution for managing supply chain activities: Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP),
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
6.2 Departmental, corporate, and inter organizational IS
6.3 IT outside your organization
6.3 Classification by Organization Levels
The typical enterprise is organized hierarchically, from the clerical and office worker layer, to the operational layer, the managerial layer, the knowledge worker layer and finally the strategic layer.
6.4 Levels in an Organization
6.5 The Clerical Level
Clerical workers constitute a large class of employees who support managers at all levels of the company. Among clerical workers, those who use, manipulate, or disseminate information are referred to as data workers. These employees include bookkeepers, secretaries who work with word processors, electronic file clerks, and insurance claim processors.
6.6 The Operational Level
Operational or first line managers deal with the day to day operations of the organization, making routine decisions, which deal in general with activities such as short-term planning, organizing, and control
6.7 The Knowledge Work Level
They act as advisors and assistants to both top and middle management and are often subject area experts. Many of these professional workers are classified as knowledge workers, people who create information and knowledge as part of their work and integrate it into the business.
6.8 The Strategic Level
Top-level or strategic managers (the executives) make decisions that deal with situations that may significantly change the manner in which business is done.
7.0 The Modern Computing Environment
Computing Environment: The way in which an organizations information technologies (hardware, software, and communications technology) are organized and integrated for optimal efficiency and effectiveness.
Legacy system: Older systems, typically those that process an organizations high volume transactions that are central to the operations of a business.
8.0 Managing Information Resources
Information resources includes hardware, software, data, networks, applications etc.
Management includes acquisition, introduction, support.
Traditionally, department (ISD IS department) owns, manages and controls all resources
End-user computing: employees use computers, write applications, manage data etc.
Leads to fragmented management and need for cooperation between ISD and users
Who is responsible for which resources?
Includes financial responsibilities (contracts between users and ISD IT controlling)
Discussion: What are the possible problems associated with:
Complete control at ISD, and
Complete control for end-users?
Which factors in a company would lead to which outcome
Chief Information Officer (CIO): sometimes member of top management, nowadays no longer technical, but strategic function
IT Governance: Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ the leadership and organisational structures and processes that ensure that the organisations IT sustains and extends the organisations strategies and objectives. Framework for IT Governance: COBIT
Control Objectives for IT and related Technologies
Mandated for Turkish banks in 2006
Domains: Plan and Organize, Acquire and Implement, Deliver and Support, Monitor and Evaluate
9.0 The information system strategies implementation in UK companies
9.1 Strategic process formality
Business strategy relationship
The ISS is a formal documented part of the business strategy
There is no formal documentation, but the ISS is related to specific strategic aims
The ISS is a departmental function, rather than a corporate function
The ISS is not seen as related to the business strategy
9.2 Success of strategies
Collective intelligence and knowledge management can become effective mechanisms to help avoid the disturbances leading to internal disequilibrium within the organisation. Collective intelligence and knowledge management can remediate the negative effects of the instability of environment. The information and knowledge become raw materials for the intelligent organisation; their management requires simple solutions. Life cycle for products and services is getting shorter; the markets are global, fragmented by the needs and exigencies of the clients. The organisational culture evolves according to the aggregate strategy. The role of knowledge manager is to invest in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge, leaving the employees to capitalise their personal competence
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